The National Center of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) is the only italian clinical facility, and one of the four in the world, for treating tumors with hadrontherapy. Hadrontherapy is not a substitute for conventional radiotherapy, but arises as an ideal technique for those cancers where conventional radiotherapy does not provide significant advantages in particular for ‘radio-resistant’ tumors and for those located close to organs at risk. The construction of Cnao, which lasted 5 years from 2005 to 2010, costed 133 milion euros. It could house a thousand of patients per year, but from 2011 only 500 were treated: direct access to the treatments by the National Health Service is only for Lombardia and Emilia Romagna residents. Until hadrontherapy has not been included in the Essential Level of Assistance, patients from the other regions will have to ask the authorization to their Local Health Agency, suffering long burocratic issues. Due to the lack of capitals, months ago Cnao was about to end its activities and it was saved by a call by 13 scientists which encouraged the government to give 30 milion euros in three years to continue the resarches and the treatments.

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